Made by MERCK
1000mg x 100 tablets
Metformin hydrochloride is an oral antihyperglycemic medication. It is prescribed for the management of Type-II diabetes, sometimes also referred to as mature onset diabetes since it tends to develop later in life. The drug is typically utilized when dietary management and exercise alone have not been able to control the progress of the disease, yet injectable insulin is not an appropriate option. While the main activity of metformin HCL is the increased utilization of glucose, it does not directly mimic the action of insulin. While its precise mode of action is unknown, it is understood to reduce the output of glucose by the liver, decrease the intestinal absorption of glucose, and increase insulin sensitivity in certain organs and peripheral tissues. Use of this agent will lower the patient’s blood sugar, though its activity makes it less likely to cause a dangerous state of hypoglycemia if the dosage is accidentally misjudged (a concern with injectable insulin).
Insulin manipulation is common in sports due to the biological actions of this hormone. Insulin is involved in nutrient storage, helping to transport amino acids, fatty acids, and carbohydrates (glucose) into various cells. In the case of muscle cells, insulin also facilitates cellular anabolic (protein synthesizing) and anti-catabolic (protein sparing) actions. This hormone also directs nutrient storage to adipose cells, however, thus its manipulation has the potential to increase fat mass. Bodybuilders have found, however, that with intense weight training, insulin can show a much greater affinity for protein and carbohydrate storage in muscle cells. By manipulating insulin levels (or insulin sensitivity) under these conditions, muscle growth with minimal fat gain is possible. Injectable insulin can be risky however, as a mistake in dosage or carbohydrate intake has the potential to cause life-threatening hypoglycemia (low blood sugar). Since this effect is rare with metformin, it is considered by some athletes to be an introduction to insulin manipulation.
The oral absorption rate of metformin HCL is slow, with the body taking approximately six hours to absorb and distribute each dose. Extended release (XR) formulations are also made, which further delay the absorption of metformin HCL. Extended release tablets should be taken whole, and not crushed. In a clinical setting, the drug is given in divided doses with meals, except for extended release formulations, which are administered once daily with the evening meal. There is no set adult clinical dose, and the drug must be tailored to and the drug must be tailored to the individual needs of the patient. It is typically initiated at a low daily dosage, and slowly escalated by 500 mg each week or 850 mg every two weeks until the minimum daily dose required for adequate glycemic control has been established. The maximum recommended daily dose for type-2 diabetic patients in 2550 mg per day. Fasting plasma glucose is used to determine the therapeutic response to metformin HCL, and glycosylated hemoglobin levels are measured every three months. The goal of therapy is to decrease fasting plasma glucose and glycosylated hemoglobin levels to normal or near normal levels using the lowest effective dose of metformin HCL, either alone or in combination with another antihyperglycemic drug (sulfonylurea or insulin).
When used for physique or performance-enhancing purposes, the typical protocol is to take 850 mg once or twice per day. If a single application is desired, it is typically taken 1-2 hours before exercise, so that the drug can have its peak effect during the early stages of recovery. It is highly common to utilize a carbohydrate supplement during the hours metformin is active in the body, especially during the crucial 2-3 hour “nutrient uptake” window following intense training. The result of metformin treatment is typically not as dramatic as insulin, but the drug still does have a notable anabolic effect for many users. Most bodybuilders/athletes opt to use this drug for a limited duration, with cycles lasting 6-8 weeks in length. This would be followed by an equally long break (at a minimum) before metformin, insulin, or any other antihyperglycemic agent is used for physique or performance-enhancing purposes.
Llewellyn, William. Anabolics